The term ‘Illuminati’ has been used in numerous contexts and has been ascribed to a variety of individuals or groups. Originally chosen as a name by a 18th century European secret society, the modern Illuminati is a wholly different creature than the Bavarian Illuminati.
Today, Illuminati is commonly used as a blanket term to describe the power elite, a relatively small group of plutocrats who collectively own and rule our world.
The exact number of people making up this group and how much control and influence they have over worldly affairs is difficult to determine, but the existence of the ruling class itself is widely accepted on both ends of the political spectrum. This highly organized superclass works towards their own common interests whether they be for the betterment of society or not.
This shadowy group is at the core of all modern Illuminati conspiracy theories. The group resonates with what the Occupy movement, a grass root organization born in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, calls the One Percent. Christian fundamentalists and UFO profiteers often add their own twists, including the usual canards of Satan worship and blood sacrifices, making use of the term Illuminati ambiguous.
We’ll examine some of the most popular conspiracy theories surrounding the Illuminati and look at their similarities and their differences.
What was the Bavarian Illuminati?
The Bavarian Illuminati was a secret society founded by Adam Weishaupt in 1776. Dismayed with the Jesuit’s dominance in Bavaria, Weishaupt founded the order to secretly spread the ideas of Enlightenment within the confines of a highly restrictive society without any freedoms of speech or religion. By 1785, the despotic Elector of Bavaria Karl Theodore had issued his first edict against the order eventually putting an end to the Bavarian Illuminati.
The modern use for the term Illuminati has little resemblance to Weishaupt’s Illuminati. I’m presently putting together a Bavarian Illuminati comic book, Terry Melanson has written his excellent Perfectibilists: The 18th Century Bavarian Order of the Illuminati and English translations of the Original documents of the Bavarian Illuminati are currently in the works.
The Illuminati is a highly secretive cabal which has been planning and directing world events from behind the scenes. Prominent members include Queen Elizabeth; most US Presidents including Barack Obama, George W. Bush, George HW Bush and Bill Clinton; the Pope and the entire Vatican apparatus including the Supreme General if the Jesuits, the Black Pope. The Rothschild and Rockefeller dynasties always have a prevalent role in Illuminati conspiracy theories, sometimes as direct rivals, sometimes as partners in the enslavement of mankind.
The Illuminati is especially active in the music industry. Most popular singers have at one time or another been labeled as belonging to the Illuminati or being puppets of the Illuminati. Jay-Z, Kanye West, Rihanna, Beyoncé, Lady Gaga, Justin Bieber, Michael Jackson, the Beatles have all been accused of involvement with the Illuminati. (See Top 10 Illuminati Celebrities.)
Popular celebrities are often accused of selling their souls to the devil or joining the Illuminati. When a celebrity dies, (ie. Heath Ledger, Michael Jackson) it was invariably caused by the illuminati.
Some celebrities have decided to play on the popularity of the illuminati and have incorporated Illuminati symbols into their work. Jay-Z has incorporated the All Seeing eye in the pyramid symbol into his Roc-A-Fella Records’s marketing image. Rihanna took a tongue-in-cheek approach to Illuminati rumors by directly inserting it in her own videos.
The Many faces of the Illuminati
There is no consensus on the group’s activities, motives and methods or even on who (or what) heads the secretive cabal. The Rothschilds and the Rockefellers are always staples in any Illuminati conspiracy, but their control and portions of the world’s wealth varies greatly from one conspiratorial model to the next.
Here are some of the most popular contenders for the top spot:
In Christian fundamentalist Illuminati conspiracy, Satan is the major antagonistic force. The Illuminati’s ultimate purpose is to serve Satan. With this purpose in mind they place subliminal messages and insert Illuminati symbols in Hollywood movies, television and music. By exposing us to vivid violence and bombarding us with explicit sexual images they are desensitizing humanity and paving the way for the coming of the Anti-Christ. (there are some variations of this theme)
Popular Christian author include Myron Fagan (his work became the archetypal template for future generations of Christian anti-Illuminati authors), Texe Marrs (Synagogue of Satan, Codex Magica), Fritz Springmeier (see below), William Guy Carr (Pawns in the Game), Mark Dice (Illuminati: Facts & Fiction) Illuminati whistleblowers from this group include Svali, John Todd and Bill Schnoebelen.
The generational Satanic bloodlines of Astor, Bundy, Collins, DuPont, Freeman, Kennedy, Li (李), Onassis, Rockefeller, Rothschild, Russell, Van Duyn and Merovingian were anointed By Satan in ancient Babylon and infused his own seed. These same bloodlines continue to rule over us to this day. High-level members of the Illuminati attend meetings where they receive orders from Satan himself. Ritual blood sacrifices invariably follow.
See Fritz Springmeier’s 13 Bloodlines of the Illuminati.
Proponents of this theory claim the Illuminati are composed of Reptilian aliens from Alpha Draconis. We are unable to see them because they operate on an alternate dimension. They have been on Earth for 1000s of years. Some Reptilians, like Queen Elizabeth II are able to maintain their human forms but usually have to shape shift into their Reptilian form before consuming freshly killed newborns. Google shape shifting images to see numerous examples of celebrities, politicians and business leaders shape shift.
The Reptilian or Draconian theory is largely popularized by superstar conspiracy author David Icke. In 1999 Icke discovered Illuminati High Priestess Arizona Wilder. David Icke is accused of anti-Semitism by the Anti-Defamation League, but from my reading of the text this doesn’t seem to be the case. According to a 2013 national poll, “4% of voters say they believe “lizard people” control our societies by gaining political power”.
Elders of Zion
In this version, Zionists and agents of the Zionist Occupational Government (ZOG) have taken over the US government. They are responsible for world events such as the French Revolution, the Bolshevik Revolution, and (gasp) have even orchestrated the Jewish Holocaust.
There are numerous overlaps with Christian Fundamentalist theory. (ie Myron Fagan, William Guy Carr) Anti-Semitism is sometimes sprinkled throughout Illuminati conspiracy literature, but this is not the norm.
This group accuses anyone who doesn’t mention the Jewish Conspiracy of being an agent of the ZOG.
The Black Pope
Ever since the beginning of the 17th century, rumors have been floating around about Jesuit corruption. They have been accused of being the true power behind the Bavarian Illuminati, of sinking the Titanic and of deep involvement in present day US foreign policy.
The Society of Jesus is the largest Catholic religious order and are lead by the Black Pope, the Jesuit Superior General. (Currently Adolfo Nicolás)
This group accuses anyone who doesn’t specifically place the Jesuits at the center of world intrigue as being a “coadjutor”. Popular radio host Alex Jones has been accused of being a Jesuit Temporal Coadjutor. Popular anti-Jesuit authors include Myron Fagan and Eric Jon Phelps (Vatican Assassins).
It is interesting to note that the founder of the Illuminati, Adam Weishaupt himself received a Jesuit education and gradually began to use their own techniques against them after founding the Bavarian Illuminati.
The average conspiracy theorist does not believe that David Rockefeller is a Satanist or that Queen Elizabeth drinks newborn blood to conceal her reptilian form and appear human.
If you achieve a significant amount of influence, you will eventually be accused of being a member of the Illuminati by one of the different groups. Both globalist kingpin David Rockefeller and popular conspiracy radio host Alex Jones, who could not be any different from each other, have been accused of being Satanists, Jesuits, Zionist, aliens and capitalists!
When most people are referring to the Illuminati and Big Banks, Big Oil, Big Pharma or Big Brother, more often than not, they are referring to the plutocratic class which dominate all aspects of society. They are usually unaware of any connotation the term might have to Lucifer, Jews or Reptilian aliens. They recognize that corporations as well as other supranational institutions are the main tools employed by the Illuminati to rule. The Illuminati is very much at ease in law offices and richly-decorated corporate headquarters.
For instance, Alex Jones always specifies that he believes about 95% of David Icke theories and dismisses the Reptilian crap. If you strip away the Reptilian, Satanist and anti-Semite disinformation concerning the Illuminati, you are left with…
The True Face of the Illuminati
Where there is smoke, there is fire.
The rest of this article will focus on the core of Illuminati conspiracy theory. The elements expounded below can be found in all the Illuminati theories mentioned above.
For whatever disagreements various groups named above have with each other, they all agree that the Illuminati uses banks, the media, government and even the food supply to control us and effectively rule over us.
The existence of a ruling class is not hidden from public knowledge, but the true power and influence of the 0.05% is often understated. As we will see, this is no accident. It is systematic and was designed that way.
Unlike Weishaupt’s order, who essentially sought the betterment of society as a whole, the modern Illuminati represent a fairly small group of individuals and families dynasties. They form a highly-organized, highly-integrated centralized power. They use overt and covert means to achieve their ends.
The New England Skeptical Society for Illuminati entry states:
In the paranoid mind, the Illuminati succeeded in their goals, and have now infiltrated every government and every aspect of society… They are the demon in the closet, and will probably never disappear from the paranoid fantasy world of right-wing conspiracy theorists.”
Paranoia?Illuminati insider Carroll Quigley who was sympathetic to what he called the Anglo-American Establishment’s goals writes:
Illuminati kingpin David Rockefeller who was “born to it and made the most of it” writes in his Memoirs:
“This radical Right fairy tale, which is now an accepted folk myth in many groups in America, pictured the recent history of the United States, in regard to domestic reform and in foreign affairs, as a well-organized plot by extreme Left-wing elements….
This myth, like all fables, does in fact have a modicum of truth. There does exist, and has existed for a generation, an international Anglophile network which operates, to some extent, in the way the Radical right believes the Communists act. In fact, this network, which we may identify as the Round Table Groups, has no aversion to cooperating with the Communists, or any other group, and frequently does so.”
~ Tragedy And Hope, 1966
“Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as ‘internationalists’ and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure – one world, if you will. If that’s the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it.”
~ Memoirs, 2002
Who are they?
They all know each other and accept each other’s exalted position in society. They understand each other, attend the same prep schools, date each other, marry each other and belong to the same social clubs. (See Jamie Johnson’s Born Rich) They all hold similar ideologies.
They are an exclusive coterie of policy makers, movers and shakers.
None of them reign supreme and they do not live in an isolated bubble. Each decision they make has repercussions in society as a whole and with other individual members of their class. They are highly-integrated. They regularly make daily decisions that affect the lives of millions of people.
They are often rivals in a number of industries but their interests often align. They have numerous common interests and issues and often pursue the same goals. For example:
- Free movement of capital
- reduced tax for upper class individuals and corporations
- reduced welfare and social spending
- deregulation or roll-back of government business regulations (i.e. anti-monopoly laws)
- increased military spending
- Systematic effort in breaking down labor unions
The inner core of the power elite is able to move from one institutions’ seat to another going between boards of corporations, advisory groups, think tanks, foundations, trustees of educational institutions. They are the political leaders, the corporate owners and directors and high-ranking military officials. They circulate between these positions and act as go-between for these groups, steadily consolidating their power. They are highly organized social group and hold a major concentration of power.
Interlocking directorate allow for cohesion and coordination efforts of the military, business and political elite. Directors obtain inside information on multiple companies, often in violation of the Clayton Act. These power elite gradually cease to think of the interest of a single corporation but begin advancing the interest of the corporate ruling class as a whole. Their influence extends far beyond their wealth alone.
Concentration of Wealth and Power
In politics, power is concentrated amongst the 2 top parties, who are really two different factions of a single business party. Power is also concentrated in business with a handful of fund hedge fund managers deciding the fate of CEOs who in turn decide the faith of millions of people. Religion is also highly concentrated with the top two religions having over one billion followers.
According to an analysis of the 1997 Forbes list, Born on Third Base, around 42% of individuals listed on the Forbes 400 list were born crossing home plate. That is, they were born with sufficient wealth to be listed on the Forbes 400 list. Another 6% were born on third plate, inheriting wealth of $50 million or more.
A Credit Suisse 2011 Global Wealth Report determined the total world wealth to be around 231 trillion USD. The report came up with the following figures: (data source: Global Wealth Report; Graphics: IlluminatiRex)
According to a 2014 Oxfam report, the richest 85 people in the world hold as much wealth as the poorest 3.5 billion people. In the view of agents, retainers and mouthpieces for this exclusive elite, this is “Fantastic!”.
At the very top of the elite are two families that are able to exercise enormous dynastic power. They have a wide network of institutions, banks, thinks tanks, corporations, foundations and other institutions that they are members of or directly control give them enormous influence which transcends the value of the individuals dynasty individual wealth.
Multiple members of the ruling class are members of these dynastic families with over a third of them directly related to the Rockefellers, Morgans or Carnegies.
US: The Rockefeller Dynasty
The Rockefeller family originally made its fortune at the turn of the century through its ownership of Standard Oil. Standard oil became ExxonMobil and Chevron, both major Big Oil players.
The family shrewdly invested its profit and was able to dominate the powerful Chase Manhattan Bank, now part of JPMorgan.
They established Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller Brothers Foundation, Rockefeller Family Foundation. They begin using their influence to shape individual and institutions on a wide scale.
In true globalist form, the family donated prime Manhattan land to the United Nations.
Europe: the Rothschild Dynasty
The Rothschild Banking dynasty was unparalleled in Europe well into the 19th century. The family still has a large influence in Britain and France. The Rothschild French and English banking branches have since merged under David de Rothschild’s Paris Orleans.
In May 2012 Lord Jacob Rothschild’s RIT Capital Partners purchased 37% of Rockefeller’s asset management group. Conspiracy trackers regard the move as a merging of the two behemoths.
Prominent Rothschild include Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Nathan Mayer Rothschild, Nathan Rothschild (Lord Rothschild), Benjamin de Rothschild (currently the richest Rothschild), Jacob Rothschild (RIT Capital) and David René de Rothschild. (NM Rothschild)
Instruments of Power
Members of the Illuminati Superclass don’t rule directly but instead use a variety of institutions and organizations to manifest their rule.
There is massive state intervention in the “free” capitalist system. The state’s purpose is to advance the goals of its primary constituency. In the majority of cases, this constituency is composed of a small financial elite. The state extends the power and domination of its ruling class. The United States is by far the most powerful country on the planet. Therefore, its ruling class occupies the very peak of the Illuminati pyramid.
The national security state is a state within the state. It employs torture and violence to advance its goals and has eugenics tendencies. Since its peak following World War 2, the United States has been in a permanent state of war. This insures that the country is perpetually indebted and that taxes collected to pay for the war efforts funnel back into the upper class’ coffers.
The state continues to cut taxes to the rich and promote the trickle down theory. In this theory, by making the rich richer they are better able to pay their employees and improve conditions for society as a whole. In reality, these profits are sent offshore. Between 2010 and 2012, the super-rich have managed to hide between $21 to $32 trillion dollars offshore.
Gerrymandering schemes such as the Electoral College insures that the President of the United States can only reach his position at the Illuminati’s behest. They are the kingmakers.
The United States was designed with preserving the interests of the ruling class in mind from the get go. Fourth US President James Madison, the “Father of the Bill of Rights” was very aware of whose rights he was protecting:
“The man who is possessed of wealth, who lolls on his sofa or rolls in his carriage, cannot judge the wants or feelings of the day-laborer. The government we mean to erect is intended to last for ages. The landed interest, at present, is prevalent; but in process of time, when we approximate to the states and kingdoms of Europe, — when the number of landholders shall be comparatively small, through the various means of trade and manufactures, will not the landed interest be overbalanced in future elections, and unless wisely provided against, what will become of your government?
In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure. An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, and to balance and check the other. They ought to be so constituted as to protect the minority of the opulent against the majority. The senate, therefore, ought to be this body; and to answer these purposes, they ought to have permanency and stability.”
At the turn of the 19th century, they were only a few hundred corporations active in the United States. Charters were granted exclusively by the States and they were forbidden from getting involved in the political process. (no lobbyists)
Corporations were easily tamed. President Andrew Jackson refused to renew the corporate charter of the Second Bank of the United States, the Federal Reserve’s predecessor. The state of Pennsylvania revoked 10 corporate charters of misbehaving banks and a number of antitrust legislations were passed.
The Civil War was a major turning point for corporations. Large concentrated fortunes were created from lucrative government war contracts. Small groups became extremely rich in the process and were able to systematically buy up judges and gradually begin eroding and amending the corporate laws that created them.
Through a series of small legal victories, corporations were able to gain more rights and privileges. Before long, corporate charters became impossible to revoke. In 1886 Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, corporations gained the same rights as a person as defined in the US Constitution.
In 1980, the US Supreme Court upheld General Electric’s patent for a microorganism created in its labs. Life could now be owned.
A recent study identified a group of 147 tightly-knit corporations who make up a super-entity witch control 40% of the global economy. The group includes mostly financial institutions such as Barclays, JPMorgan and Goldman Sachs.
Corporations answer to their shareholders who are heavily concentrated in a handful of hedge fund and family estate managers. Corporations have been able to gain strategic ownership of all basic industries.
At the center of the Illuminati octopus, sits Big Banks. The top 6 banks combined assets is equivalent to 60% of the GDP. These 6 banks take in 40% of all corporate profits. The scope and depth of their power and just how much reach their tentacles have is demonstrated in the fact that not a single Wall Street executive was convicted of any wrongdoing following the financial crisis. How did these banks get to big to fail? Through an endless cycle of mergers, bailouts, and more mergers. Over the last 20 years, 4 of these top banks were created from 37 smaller ones.
The Illuminati’s domination over the privately-owned Federal Reserve is another important tool in manipulating currency values.
Oil is by far the most largely-traded commodity on the planet. Exxon is the largest oil refiner on the world, and Big Oil benefits from a stable price of oil. To this end, the state has been active in upholding Big Oil’s world dominance. If an oil producing country decides to go against Big Oil’s wished and exceed its assigned quota, the mercenary state comes in to take care of the problem. This has the added benefit of having taxpayers foot the bill for protecting Big Oil interests.
The media role is to inform the public. They are the gatekeepers of the system. They constantly presents viewers with the “Hows?” of a situation but only rarely ask “Why?” – it never explores the motives behind world events. The machinations of the ruling class are seldom discussed in the mass media. This has motivated activist hacking group Anonymous to launch OpNSA. Anonymous uses public information to inform the public of the Whys of situations and answers the questions about who benefits from certain policies. OpNSA is provided the context that the media should provide.
According to the Propaganda model, the first two filters that news has to go through before reaching the public are ownership and funding.
Ownership: Arthur Sulzberger of the New York times had a computer on his desk where he could call up the following day’s edition and make changes or kill any story he wished.
Robert Murdoch of News Corp:
“Media mogul Rupert Murdoch was once asked in an interview: “You’re considered to be politically conservative. To what extent do you influence the editorial posture of your newspapers?” He responded with refreshing candor: “Considerably… my editors have input, but I make the final decisions.”
~ Liberal Media Myth – Michael Parenti
Proctor and Gamble, by far the largest TV advertiser in the United States, is able to use its dominant position to set guidelines for daytime television content. Corporations have also gained the right to lie in their advertisement as they too, are protected by the First Amendment.
Media ownership in the United States is dominated by 6 corporations:
All aspects of food production is heavily dominated by a concentration of major corporations.
Seeds come from 4 major companies (Monsanto, DuPont, Syngenta, Groupe Limagrain) Beef comes from 4 major packers control more than 80% (Tyson, Cargill, Swift, National Beef Packing Co.) Pork comes from 4 main packers (Smithfield, Tyson, Swift & Co., Cargill) Chicken from 4 broilers (Tyson, Perdue, Sanderson Farms) Food is processed by 4 major company (Nestle, Kraft, Unilever, General Mills) and general food and beverages come from 5 major companies (Nestle, PepsiCo, Kraft, Coca-Cola, Unilever).
McDonald’s is the largest buyer of beef and potatoes in the United States. As such, it is able to dictate how beef should be prepared to its standards. These same corporations are involved in various water privatization schemes throughout the world. Bechtel’s South American plans have led to civil war in Bolivia.
The state heavily subsidizes the growing of soy and corn crops. This has created huge distortion in the market and explains why chips and coca-cola are cheaper than carrots and broccoli. The artificially created abundance of soy and corn has spurred the food industry to create more and more food items based on corn and soy derivatives. Genetically modified foods such as High-fructose corn syrup have come to dominate the dinner table with disastrous consequences for the nation’s health.
Supermarkets shelf space is mostly occupied by the products of 10 mega corporations:Source
Foundations are more than just tax shelters. They are more than philanthropies used to clean up the image of corporate tyrants. They have evolved into important engines of for social engineering. The Illuminati elite were able to use these tax exempt foundations to funnel money to their favorite policy making groups which steadily produced literature to promote their agenda. The Rockefellers founded the University of Chicago and funded the farce that is Milton Friedman.
Popular elite foundations include the Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller Brothers Foundation, Ford Foundations and the Carnegie Endowment. They all share similar ideologies.
At the turn of the century, Robber Barons sought to create better workers. They used their foundations for this very purpose. In 1913, the Rockefeller-funded General Education Board wrote:
“In our dreams, we have limitless resources and the people yield themselves with perfect docility to our molding hands. The present education conventions fade from their minds, and unhampered by tradition, we work our own good will upon a grateful and responsive rural folk. We shall not try to make these people or any of their children into philosophers or men of learning, or men of science. We have not to raise up from among them authors, editors, poets or men of letters. We shall not search for embryo great artists, painters, musicians nor lawyers, doctors, preachers, politicians, statesmen, of whom we have an ample supply –
The task we set before ourselves is very simple as well as a very beautiful one, to train these people as we find them to a perfectly ideal life just where they are. So we will organize our children and teach them to do in a perfect way the things their fathers and mothers are doing in an imperfect way, in the homes, in the shops and on the farm.”
~ General Education Board, Occasional Papers, No.1 (1913)
Think Tanks and Policy-making Groups
These groups were all founded and funded by the global elite in order to mobilize regional elite players around the world beyond their national borders. They provide venues for planning strategy and forming consensus amongst elite of finance, the military and high-level government officials.
They are also important social engineering engines and are vitals in manifesting the upper class’ rule.
Council on Foreign Relations
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) grew out of the Round Table Groups and was officially founded in 1921. It is a highly influential poly making group and was the force behind the creation of the League of Nations and the United Nations. It was also essential in planning the post-WW2 economic and political order.
The Council includes both puppets and puppeteers and has around 4700 members cherry picked from finance, academia, media, intelligence, government, military and other prominent think tanks.
The CFR’s British sister organization, Chatham House (aka Royal Institute of International Affairs) plays a similar war in the United Kingdom.
Founded in 1972 by chairman of Chase Manhattan, Bilderberg Steering coming member, Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations and kingpin of the Global Elite, David Rockefeller.
The group includes Japan and China at its meetings. David Rockefeller. Rockefeller work hard to speed up globalization and mobilize members of his class in other countries to internationalize. The Trilateral commission‘s goal is to build closer ties between high-government officials and top business leaders of North America, Europe and Asia.
The Trilateral’s major funder is the tax-exempt Rockefeller Foundation.
The Bilderbergers are led by a Steering Committee and hold annual closed-door meetings in various locations around the world. Attendees are chosen from the crème of the elite crème and are composed of around 65 regulars and around 50 guests. Try to “reach mutual understanding” amongst Spy chiefs, media conglomerate leaders, high-level government officials, business leaders and other North-Atlantic elite.
The Bilderberg Group‘s combined membership control worldwide energy supply and was Instrumental in planning a unified European currency, European Common Market and the European Union.
The Illuminati’s current modus operandi is devastating our environment, causing wars, famine, and generally improvising the world. I welcome any comment you might have on this article.
David suggests that countries surrender their sovereignty to supranational organization such as the United Nation as to empower democratic institutions.
David 2008 list includes 6000 individuals.
See his Superclass list here.
Global Wealth Report 2011, Credit Suisse
Social Inequality and Social Stratification in US Society
Christopher B. Doob
The Power Elite
C. Wright Mills
Power Elite excerpts
Born Rich 2003 Jamie Johnson – HBO documentary Being an heir to the Johnson and Johnson fortune, Jamie is an insider and his unfettered access gives us a candid glimpse of how the elite really think.
The Uncooling of America: The History of Corporations in the United States
William Kalle Lasn
Food, Inc. 2008
Documentary film, Robert Kenner
Global Power Project, Andrew Gavin Marshall
The Global 1%: Exposing the Transnational Ruling Class – Censored Notebook, Investigative Research, Peter Phillips and Kimberly Soeiro